反垄断法宗旨研究(9)

第三章 世界范围内反垄断法宗旨考察

尽管理论通常高于实践,但理论最终还是要回归到实践并接受实践的检验。要解决反垄断法宗旨争论问题,考察部分国家的反垄断法实践是必然的选择。由于受多种因素的影响,各国有关反垄断法宗旨的做法并不完全相同,有的国家在立法中对反垄断法的目标作出了明确表述,有的国家则没有作出直接表述。

一、直接对立法宗旨作出规定的国家

当前存在反垄断法的国家或者地区大多数在法律文本中明确规定了反垄断法的目的,这些国家和地区不仅包括传统的大陆法系国家和地区,还包括英美法系国家及其地区。[1]

(一) 美洲和非洲地区

加拿大(Canada)《竞争法》(Competition Act)第一章的标题为“目的与释义”,其明确指出“本法的目的是维护和鼓励加拿大的竞争,以提高加拿大经济的效率和适应性,在承认外国在加拿大竞争地位的同时扩大加拿大参与世界市场的机会,确保中小企业具有参与加拿大经济的公平机会,亦即为消费者提供竞争型的价格和产品选择。”

巴西(Brazil)的《反垄断法》(Lei de Defesada Concorrencia)第一条规定:本法建立反垄断机制,保障宪法上规定的原则,诸如自由经营和开放竞争、财富社会性、消费者保护和限制经济权利的滥用。[2]

墨西哥(Mexico)的《联邦经济竞争法》(Federal LawConcerning Economic Competition)在第二条中规定了立法宗旨:本法的立法目的是通过对垄断力量、垄断行为和那些有碍于商品和服务市场运行效率的其他限制竞争行为来保护竞争机制。[3]

巴拿马(Panama)的《竞争保护法》(Ley No.29 por la Cual se Dictan Normas sobre la Defensade la Competencia y se Adoptan Otras Medidas)指出:本法的立法目的是保护和强化自由经济竞争机制,消除垄断行为和其他限制商品和服务市场功效的行为,保障消费者的更多利益。[4]

委内瑞拉(Venezuela)的《促进和保护自由竞争法》(Ley para Promover y Proteger el Ejercicio de la LibreCompetencia)立法目的主要如下:促进和保护对消费者和生产者都有裨益的自由竞争和经济效率,禁止垄断行为和其他妨碍、限制、虚假化自由竞争方式。[5]

肯尼亚(Kenya)的《限制性商业行为、垄断与价格控制法》(The Restrictive Trade Practices, Monopolies andPrice Control Act)在序言中指出:国会制定本法的目的是通过禁止限制贸易行为、控制垄断和经济力量集中以及价格来促进经济活动中的竞争及其相关目的。[6]

马拉维(Malawi)的《竞争与公平交易法》(The Competition and Fair Trading Act)规定:本法案的目的是寻求制定一部通过禁止反竞争贸易行为来促进经济活动竞争的新法律。该法案的主要目的包括:(a)建立科学的制度来规制那些主要包含限制转售价格、企业合并的垄断和反竞争的贸易行为和诸如串谋和价格固定的限制竞争行为;(b)制止不公平的贸易行为和保护消费者权益;(c)执行和监督政策实施和建立执行机制。[7]

摩洛哥(Morocco)的《自由价格与竞争法》(Loi No.6/99 sur la Liberte des prix et de la concurrence)主要目的如下:保护竞争机制的自由发挥来实现价格自由形成,保护自由市场进入,保障交易关系的透明和公平,强化有关消费者信息的规则。[8]

南非(South Africa)的《1998年竞争法》(The Competition Act 89of 1998)在序言中写道:制定本法的目的是建立竞争委员会以履行对限制竞争行为、滥用优势地位行为和合并进行调查、控制和评估,建立竞争特别法定负责管辖此类事务,建立竞争上诉法庭,以及其他相关事项。[9]

坦桑尼亚(Tanzania)的《公平交易活动法》(The Fair Trade Practices Act)在立法序言中指出:制定本法的目的是促进和保护商业和贸易中有效的竞争,保护消费者免受不公平和带有误导性的市场行为,以及为相关方面的事项提供环境。[10]

赞比亚(Zambia)的《竞争与公平交易法》(Competition and Fair Trading Act)有关立法目的指出:制定本法的目的是通过禁止反竞争贸易行为来促进经济活动中的竞争,规制垄断力量和经济力量的集中,保护消费者福利,提升生产和分配服务的效率,为自由贸易提供最好的条件,拓展企业实力,为相关方面的事项提供必要的环境。[11]

津巴布韦(Zimbabwe)的《1996年竞争法》(The Competition Act 1996)在序言中指出:本法是为了促进和维持本国经济中的竞争,建立产业和贸易竞争委员会并确立其功能,为制止和控制限制竞争行为、规制合并、制止和控制垄断和禁止不公平贸易行为提供条件,以及为与此相关方面的事务提供条件。[12]

(二)欧洲地区

奥地利(Austria)的《卡特尔法》(Cartel Act),本法的立法目的主要是保持有效的竞争,制止那些限制或者扭曲本国卡特尔法或者欧共体竞争法规则涉及到的竞争。[13]

保加利亚(Bulgaria)的《竞争保护法》(Law on theProtection of Competition)第一条第一款规定:本法的立法目的是保护和促进市场经济中的自由理念和竞争,并提供相应社会条件。[14]

捷克(Czech)的《经济竞争保护法》(Act on the Protection of Economic Competition)在第一条第一款中规定:本法目的是保护商品和服务市场上的竞争,制止通过企业之间的协议、滥用企业优势地位或者经营者集中来消除、限制或者扭曲市场竞争行为。[15]

丹麦(Denmark)的《丹麦竞争法》(Danish Competition Act)第一条规定:本法的立法目是通过有效竞争来促进资源有效配置,实现企业和消费者的利益。[16]

芬兰(Finland)的《竞争限制法》(Act on Competition Restriction)第一条规定:为了保护正常有效的竞争不受有害的限制性行为的影响,特制定本法。在适用本法时,尤其注意保护消费者的利益,保证商业企业的自由经营权不受不合理的壁垒和限制的影响。

匈牙利(Hungary)的《禁止不公平市场行为和限制竞争法》(Act on theProhibition of Unfair and Restrictive Market Practices)在序言中规定了反垄断宗旨所在。“市场竞争能推动经济效率的基本条件是经济竞争的自由和公平。为了维护自由河公平的竞争,就须禁止与之相背离的不正当的市场行为,监督企业主的组织协议,并建立必要的组织机构。与之相应,法律保护经济竞争的公共利益,保护部分者的利益,并随着倡导诚实的市场行为保护消费者的利益。为实现上述目的,国会颁布以下法令。”

爱尔兰(Ireland)的《2006年竞争法》(CompetitionAct of 2006)在序言中指出:本法对2002年的竞争法进行修订,为社会提供公共福利,禁止那些阻碍、限制或者扭曲本国普通商品市场上的竞争,取消1987年的限制性法令(杂货店)和废除1987年限制性法令(订货确认)和其他有关过时法律。[17]

意大利(Italy)的《竞争和公平交易法》(Competition and Fair Trade Law)第一条规定:本法是为实施宪法第四十一条关于保护和保障自由企业权利而作出的规定,适用于协议、滥用支配地位和集中……。

拉脱维亚(Latvia)的《竞争法》(Law on Competition)第二条规定:本法的目的是保护、维持和发展自由、公平和平等的竞争以实现所有经济部门中的社会公共利益,限制市场集中并以此作为涉及竞争的规制性立法所禁止行为的强行义务,依照规制性法律确定的程序来确定涉嫌当事人。[18]

立陶宛(Lithuania)的《竞争法》(Law on Competition)第一条第一款规定:本法的立法目的是保护本国自由和公平竞争。[19]

马耳他(Malta)的《规制竞争与公平交易法》(Act toRegulate Competition and Provide for Fair Trading)在序言中指出:本法的目的是促进贸易中的竞争,实现积极经济结果,刺激技术进步、合理控制价格。经营者之间的竞争能够形成持续的压力,使得价格被控制的可能性越来越小。本法将创立一个与欧盟规则一致的现代化制度以在本国建立有效竞争的制度。本法通过定义更为精确的概念来引导企业实施和法行为,保障企业和消费者获得竞争的裨益。[20]

波兰(Poland)的《反垄断行为法》(Act onCounteracting Monopolistic Practices)第一条明确规定:为了确保竞争的开展,保护经营者免受垄断行为的损害,保护消费者的利益,特作如下规定。

罗马尼亚(Romania)的《竞争法》(The Competition Law)第一条, 本法旨在通过保护、维持和鼓励竞争以及正常的竞争环境,从而提高消费者福利。

斯洛伐克(Slovakia)的《经济竞争保护法》(Act on Protection of the Economic Competition)在序言中指出,本法的主要立法目的是保护产品、劳务和服务上的经济竞争,制止限制竞争行为。[21]

斯洛文尼亚(Slovenia)的《保护竞争法》(The Law on the Protection of Competition)立法宗旨是:本法立法目的是制止那些限制、消除或者扭曲商品和服务市场上竞争的协议、决定和行为,以及在市场上具有支配地位的企业优势滥用,通过必要的规制和监管来保护竞争。[22]

西班牙(Spain)《保护竞争的第16/1989号法》(Law 16 / 89on the Defence of Competition)在很长的序言中指出,制定本法是为了达到以下这个特定目标,即保证有效竞争的存在和制止任何有悖于公共利益的行为。[23]

瑞典(Sweden)的《瑞典竞争法》(Swedish Competition Act)第一条规定:本法的目的在于打破并消除阻碍货物、服务以及其他产品生产和贸易领域中的有效竞争的壁垒。

阿尔巴尼亚(Albania)的《竞争法》(Per Konkurrencen)第一条有关立法宗旨规定指出:本法的目标是保护公平和高效的市场竞争,确立经营者的行为规则以及保护竞争和企业竞争力的机构。[24]

克罗地亚(Croatia)的《市场竞争保护法》(The Law on the Protection of Market Competition)指出,本法规定保护竞争的规则和措施体系,调整被委以保护竞争职责的机构的权利、责任和组织构成,并规定实施本法的程序。

冰岛(Iceland)的《竞争法》(Competition Law)在序言中指出:本法的立法宗旨是促进冰岛商品和服务提供市场上的竞争。[25]

瑞士(Switzerland)的《关于卡特尔和其他限制竞争行为的联邦法》(Federal Acton Cartels and Other Restraints of Competition)第一条指出,本法的立法目的是预防有害于经济和社会的卡特尔和其他限制竞争的行为,以此促进竞争实现基于自由原则基础上市场经济利益。[26]

土耳其(Turkey)的《竞争保护法》(Act on the Protection of Competition)在第一部分有关立法目的、适用范围和定义中指出:本法的立法宗旨是制止那些阻碍、破坏或者限制商品或者服务市场上竞争的协议、决定和行为以及在市场上具有支配地位的企业优势滥用,通过实施必要的规制和监管来保护市场竞争。[27]

阿塞拜疆(Azerbaijan)的《反垄断行为法》(The Law on Antimonopoly Activities)第一条规定,本法对预防、限制或者消除垄断行为起到组织功能和法律功能。[28]《不公平竞争法》(The Law on Unfair Competition)在序言中则指出,现行法律主要任务在于预防和消除不公平竞争,为企业诚实经营创造一定的法律环境,以市场为导向对不公平竞争行为确定法律责任。[29]

白俄罗斯(Belarus)的《反对垄断行为与发展竞争法》(The Law on Counteraction toMonopolistic Activity and Development of Competition)立法宗旨:本法宗旨在于建立组织制度和法律制度,以预防、限制和消除垄断行为,为公平竞争和高效的商品市场和消费者权利保护提供条件。[30]

乔治亚(Georgia)的《垄断行为与竞争法》(Lawon Monopolistic Activities and Competition)的立法宗旨指出:本法的立法宗旨是为创业提供组织和法律基础,保护本国竞争环境,保护消费者权益。[31]

俄罗斯(Russia)《关于在商品市场中竞争和限制垄断活动的俄罗斯联邦法》(Law of the Russian Federationon Competition and the Limitation of Monopolistic Activity on Goods Markets)第一条规定,本联邦法的主体和目的:1、本联邦法决定保护竞争的组织性和法律基础,防止和限制:(1)垄断行为和不公平竞争行为;(2)防止和限制、减少由联邦行政机构、俄罗斯联邦各组成国的公共机构、地方机构以及其他行使上述机构的职能的结构或者组织,以及公共预算外基金和俄罗斯联邦中央银行进行的竞争。2、本联邦法旨在俄罗斯联邦内确保公共经济领域、商品的自由流动、竞争的保护和经济活动的自由,并且为商品市场的有效运作创造条件。

乌克兰(Ukraine)的《乌克兰限制垄断和防止企业活动不公平竞争法》(Law of Ukraine on Limitation of Monopolism andPrevention of Unfair Competition in Entreprenurial Activities)指出:本法应当为维持和保护经济竞争、为限制经济活动中的垄断提供法律基础,应当确保基于竞争机制发展而形成乌克兰经济的高效率性。[32]

乌兹别克斯坦(Uzbekistan)的《乌兹别克斯坦共和国市场竞争与限制垄断法》(The Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan about aCompetition and Monopolistic Activity Restriction in the Commodity Markets)在第一条有关立法目的中指出,本法的立法宗旨是为预防、限制和消除垄断行为、不公平竞争行为提供组织和法律基础,为市场上竞争机制的形成和有效发挥提供条件。[33]

(三)亚洲和澳洲地区

澳大利亚(Australia)的《贸易行为法》(TradePractice Act)规定,该法的目的是通过促进竞争和公平交易以及保护消费者,提高澳大利亚的福利。

中国(China)的《反垄断法》(Antimonopoly Law)第一条规定,为了预防和制止垄断行为,保护市场公平竞争,提高经济运行效率,维护消费者利益和社会公共利益,促进社会主义市场经济健康发展,制定本法。

中国台湾地区(Chinese Taipei)的《公平交易法》(Fair TradeLaw)第一条规定:“为了维护交易秩序与消费者利益,确保公平竞争,促进经济之安定与繁荣,特制定本法。”

印度(India)的《竞争法》(Competition Act)指出,本法从我国的经济发展出发,规定建立一个防止对竞争有不利影响行为发生的委员会,以期促进并保持印度市场上的竞争,保护消费者利益,确保印度市场的其它参与者能够自由的进行交易,并规制与此相关涉及的一切问题。

印度尼西亚(Indonesia)的《印度尼西亚共和国关于禁止垄断和不公平商业竞争的1999年第五号法律》(Law of theRepublic of Indonesia Number 5 of the Year 1999 Concerning the Prohibition ofMonopoly and Unfair Business Competition),考虑到:一、经济领域内的发展必须有利于基于印度尼西亚国五原则和一九四五年宪法的公共利益的实现;二、经济领域内的民主要求印度尼西亚公民能在一个健康、有效率和有效的商业环境中公平地参与产品或者服务的生产和营销过程,以促进经济增长,并使市场经济良好地运行;三、每个参与印度尼西亚商业活动的人必须处于一种公平和适当的竞争环境,以至于不会导致特定企业经济权利的集中,也不会忽视印度尼西亚共和国签订的国家合同中所作的协议;四、为了实现上面所提到的第一、二和第三条目标,在众议院提案的情况下,制定禁止垄断活动和不公平商业竞争的法律被认为是必要的。第三条规定:一、维护公共利益,提高国家经济的效率以促进公共福利;二、通过健康的商业竞争来创造有益的商业环境,保证大、中和小规模企业商业机会的平等;三、阻止企业的垄断活动和/或者不公平商业竞争;并在商业活动中创造有效性和效率。

日本(Japan)的《禁止私人垄断与维护公平交易法》(ActConcerning Prohibition of Private Monopolization and Maintenance of Fair Trade)第一条规定,“本法的目的,是通过禁止私人垄断、不正当的交易限制以及不公平的交易方法,防止经济力量的过度集中,排除因联合、协议等方法形成的生产、销售、价格、技术等的不正当限制以及其他的对事业活动的不正当约束,促进公平的、自由的竞争,刺激企业家的创造性,繁荣经济,提高就业水平以及国民实际收入,以确保一般消费者的利益病促进国民经济民主、健康地发展。”

韩国(Korea)的《垄断管制与公平交易法》(Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade Act)第一条规定:本法的目的是防止事业者滥用市场支配地位和经济力的过度集中,规制不正当的共同行为以及不公平交易行为,促进公平的、自由的竞争,发挥企业活动的创意性,保护消费者,促进国民经济的均衡发展。

蒙古(Mongolia)的《蒙古禁止不正当竞争法》(Law of Mongolia on Prohibiting Unfair Competition)第一条,制定本法旨在规范以下关系,即有关禁止和限制国家支配市场中的企业竞争以及禁止和限制垄断和其他阻碍公平竞争行为的关系。

新西兰(New Zealand)的《贸易法》(Commerce Act)第一条规定,本法目的是促进市场竞争以实现新西兰境内的消费者的长远利益。[34]

巴基斯坦(Pakistan)的《垄断与限制贸易行为(控制与预防)法令》(The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practice(Control and Prevention) Ordinance)在序言中指出,考虑到不当集中的经济力量与不合理垄断力量和不合理限制贸易行为的增加对巴基斯坦的经济福利与增长以及发展是不利的,考虑到立法有利于为控制经济力量的集中和垄断力量的增长和限制贸易行为和相关方面的事物提供措施,考虑到巴基斯坦有关经济的国家利益和金融稳定,为了履行1969年3月25日宪法宣言的规定和宪法赋予总统的权力,总统特颁布以下内容。[35]

斯里兰卡(Sri Lanka)的《公平交易委员会法》(Fair Trading Commission Ac)在序言中指出,为了制定与执行国家价格政策、废除国家价格委员会和控制垄断、兼并和反竞争行为以及与此有关的其他所有事务,本法建立公平贸易委员会。[36]


[1]目前,世界上已经制定反垄断法律制度的国家和地区已经有一百多个。但是其中只有十几个国家和地区的法律文本已经翻译成为中文,刊载在各种媒体上,如《主要国家(地区)反垄断法律汇编》、中国竞争法网等。为了能够更好的了解其他国家和地区的立法宗旨,笔者通过各种途径收集到大部分成文法国家的反垄断法律制度(英文版)并对相关部分翻译。由于各人水平有限和翻译难度较大,特将部分国内尚未翻译过的国家和地区的反垄断法立法宗旨英文内容附上,供阅读和研究参考。

[2]This Law sets out antitrust measures in keeping with suchconstitutional principles as free enterprise and open competition, the socialrole of property, consumer protection, and restraint of abuses of economicpower.

[3]The purpose of thislaw is to protect the process of competition and free market participation,through the prevention of monopolies, monopolistic practices and otherrestrictions that deter the efficient operation of the market for goods andservices.

[4]The purpose of the Law is to protect and secure theprocess of free economic competition, eradicate monopolistic practices andother constraints on the efficient functioning of the markets for goods andservices, and safeguard the greater interests of consumers.

[5]The objective of the law is to promote and protect thefree competition and the efficiency that benefits the producers and the consumers;and to prohibit monopolistic and oligopolistic practices and other means thatcould impede, restrict, falsify, or limit the enjoyment economic freedom.

[6]An Act ofParliament to encourage competition in the economy by prohibiting restrictivetrade practices, controlling monopolies, concentrations of economic power andprices and for connected purposes.

[7]This Billseeks to enact a new law at encouraging competition in the economy byprohibiting anti-competitive trade practices. The principal objectives of theBill include:(a) the establishment of an appropriate mechanism to regulatemonopolistic and anti-competitive trade practices including specifically resaleprice maintenance, mergers and acquisitions and restrictive trade practicessuch as collusion and price fixing;(b) deterrence of unfair trading practicesand provide protection of consumers; and(c) implementation and monitoring ofpolicy issues and establishment of enforcement mechanisms.

[8]the Law onFree Pricing and Competition aims to ensure: free price formation through thefree play of competition; free market access; transparency and fairness intrade relations; the strengthening of rules regarding consumer information.

[9]ACT to providefor the establishment of a Competition Commission responsible for theinvestigation, control and evaluation of restrictive practices, abuse ofdominant position, and mergers; and for the establishment of a CompetitionTribunal responsible to adjudicate such matters; and for the establishment of aCompetition Appeal Court;and for related matters.

[10]An act topromote and protect effective competition in trade and commerce, to protectconsumers from unfair and misleading market conduct and to provide for otherrelated matters.

[11]An Act toencourage competition in the economy by prohibiting Anti-competitive tradepractices; to regulate monopolies and concentrations of economic power; toprotect consumer welfare; to strengthen the efficiency of production anddistribution of services; to secure the best possible conditions for thefreedom of trade, to expand the base of entrepreneurship; and to provide formatters connected with or incidental to the foregoing.

[12]ZIMBABWE ACTTo promote and maintain competition in the economy of Zimbabwe; to establish anIndustry and Trade Competition Commission and to provide for its functions; toprovide for the prevention and control of restrictive practices, the regulationof mergers, the prevention and control of monopoly situations and theprohibition of unfair trade practices; and to provide for matters connectedwith or incidental to the foregoing.

[13]To ensure a working competition and to prevent and engagedistortions or restrictions of competition in regards to the Austrian CartelAct or the European Competition Rules

[14]This Law aims at ensuring protection and conditions forthe promotion of competition and free

initiative in the sphere of the economy.

[15]This Act regulates the protection of competition in themarket of products and services (hereinafter referred to as “goods”) againstits elimination, restriction, other distortion, or imperilment (hereinafterreferred to as “distortion”) by(a) agreements between undertakings (Article 3(1)),  (b) abuse of dominant position ofundertakings, or (c) concentration of undertakings.

[16]The purpose of thisAct is to promote efficient resource allocation in society through workablecompetition for the benefit of undertakings and consumers.

[17]An act to amend the competition act 2002 by providing inthe interests of the common good.For the prohibition of activities whichprevent ,restrict or distort competition in trade in grocery goods in the state,to revoke the restrictive practices (groceries) order 1987 and to repeal therestrictive practices (confirmation of order ) act 1987 and other related andspent acts.

[18]Purpose of this Law: The purpose of this law is toprotect, maintain and develop free, fair and

equal competition in the interests of the public in alleconomic sectors, to restrict market concentration, impose as an obligation thetermination of activities which are prohibited by the regulatory enactmentsregulating competition, and to call to account persons at fault in accordancewith procedures prescribed by regulatory enactments competition.

[19]The purpose of this Law is to protect freedom of faircompetition in the Republic of Lithuania.

[20]The aim of the Competition Act is to promote competitionin trade in a manner which best guarantees positive economic results,encourages technological progress and quality and contributes towards pricemoderation. Competition between undertakings exercises constant pressure onprices making it increasingly possible to relax price control. This Act isintended to create a modern system consistent with the European Union rulesestablishing a framework for effective competition inMalta. It provides legal certaintyto undertakings inMaltaby defining the parameters within which they may lawfully conduct theirbusiness on the Maltese market and will guarantee business and consumers thebenefits of competition.

[21]The main purpose of the act is to protect economiccompetition on markets of products, works and services against its restriction.

[22]Article 1 The purpose of this Actis to prevent agreements, decisions and practices preventing, distorting orrestricting competition in markets for goods and services, and the abuse ofdominance by the undertakings dominant in the market, and to ensure theprotection of competition by performing the necessary regulations andsupervisions to this end.

[23]EXPLANATORY STATEMENT: Thepresent Act was drawn up to meet this specific objective: to ensure theexistence of sufficient competition and protect it against any attack that iscontrary to the public interest. It is compatible with the other laws that regulatethe market according to other legal or economic requirements, be they public orprivate.

[24]Subject of the Law : This lawaims the protection of fair and effective market competition, defining therules of conduct by undertakings, as well as the institutions responsible forprotection of competition and their competencies.

[25]A LAW to promote competition inthe supply of goods and services in Jersey.

[26] Purpose: The purpose of the present Act is to preventharmful economic or social effects of cartels and other restraints ofcompetition and, by doing so, to promote competition in the interests of amarket economy based on liberal principles.

[27]The purpose of this Act is toprevent agreements, decisions and practices preventing, distorting orrestricting competition in markets for goods and services, and the abuse ofdominance by the undertakings dominant in the market, and to ensure theprotection of competition by performing the necessary regulations andsupervisions to this end.

[28] Objectives of the Law : The Law determinesorganizational and legal foundations for prevention, restriction andsuppression of the monopoly activity.

[29]The present law regulates organizing-legal basis to prevent and remove unfaircompetition,creates legalground for entrepreneurship through honestmethods, stipulate responsibility of market-oriented subjects for applicationofmethods of unfair competition.

[30]The present Law shall establishthe organizational and legal framework to prevent, restrict and suppressmonopolistic activity and provide conditions for development of faircompetition, efficient commodity markets and protection of consumers’ rights.

[31] The purpose of this law is to provide enterprisingwith organizational-legal foundation and

to ensure competitive environmentinGeorgia,as well as to protect the rights of consumers.

[32]The present Law shall definelegal grounds for the maintenance and protection of economic competition, forthe limitation of monopolism in economic activities and shall be directedtowards ensuring the efficient functioning of the economy ofUkraineon the basis of thedevelopment of competitive relations.

[33]The purpose of the Law: Thepresent Law determines organizational and legal bases of the prevention,restriction, and suppression of monopolistic activity and unfair competition,and directed towards providing conditions for formation and effectivefunctioning of the competitive relations in the markets.

[34] The purpose of this Act is to promotecompetition in markets for the long-term benefit of consumers withinNew Zealand.

[35]AN ORDINANCEto provide for measures against undue concentration of economic power, growthof unreasonable monopoly power and unreasonably restrictive trade practices.WHEREAS the undue concentration of economic power, growth of unreasonablemonopoly power and unreasonably restrictive trade practices are injurious tothe economic well-being, growth and development of Pakistan; AND WHEREAS it isexpedient to provide for measures against such concentration, growth and practicesand for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto; AND WHEREAS thenational interest of Pakistan in relation to the economic and financialstability of Pakistan requires Central legislation in the matter; NOWTHEREFORE, in pursuance of the Proclamation of the 25th day of March, 1969,read with Provisional Constitution Order, and in exercise of all powersenabling him in that behalf, the President is pleased to make and promulgatethe following Ordinance :

[36]AN ACT TOPROVIDE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF,A FAIR TRADING COMMISSION FOR THE CONTROL OFMONOPOLIES, MERGERS AND ANTICOMPETITIVE PRACTICES AND FOR THE FORMULATION ANDIMPLEMENTATION OF A NATIONAL PRICE POLICY; FOR THE REPEAL OF THE NATIONALPRICES, COMMISSION LAW, NO. 42 OF 1975 ; AND FOR ALL MATTERS CONNECTED THEREWITH OR INCIDENTAL THERETO.

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来源:垄断杂谈

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